What Is Distribution? Channels Of Distribution In Nigeria

Distribution involves making goods and services available to end users or consumers who require them. Its primary goal is to efficiently keep and manage products while delivering them in the best possible condition to consumers in various places.

Although the length of a distribution channel varies, it typically includes a distributor, retailer, wholesaler, producer, and consumer. Companies must create an effective channel in order to establish long-term engagement with their customers. They can use both indirect and direct distribution tactics to achieve their goal. Choosing the appropriate strategy is critical to a company’s success.

Understanding The Role of Distribution in Marketing

Distribution is the flow of goods and services from the producer or manufacturer to the buyer or customer. It is a component of place and a critical component of the marketing mix. Businesses can boost client retention by ensuring that items are delivered to end customers quickly and easily.

The distribution channel is the network of intermediaries or enterprises through which goods and services are distributed. Depending on the number of intermediaries required to make goods and services available to customers in different regions, this channel might be long or short. However, if the channel is longer, manufacturers receive smaller profits because they must pay every middleman in the distribution network.

Distribution management is critical to any company’s sales and entails a variety of operations. Let us take a closer look at such activities.

#1. Warehousing

Warehousing is the storage of physical items prior to distribution or sale. Large enterprises typically hire a space specifically built for storing items. Small enterprises, on the other hand, use a spare room, garage, or basement as a warehouse.

#2. Packaging

Efficient packing is critical for ensuring that items reach consumers in good condition.

When a consumer places an order, distribution management must arrange the delivery, which includes picking up the products, loading them, and delivering them on time. In addition, after receiving the order, the distributor must prepare an invoice.

#3. Inventory Management

Overstocking can cause a company’s expenses to rise. Furthermore, an organization may lose consumers if it does not have enough stock to fulfill orders. As a result, proper inventory management is essential for any firm.

#4. Communication

To guarantee that the proper products are sent, all participants in a distribution network, such as retailers and wholesalers, must communicate with one another. Furthermore, clear communication allows a corporation to give customers an approximate delivery date.

#5. Logistics

One of the most important factors that all businesses must address is mode of transportation. If overseas shipping is required, they must obtain the relevant approvals as soon as feasible. Additionally, firms must organize the loading and unloading processes in order to have the necessary equipment on hand.

Types Of Distribution In Marketing

Indirect Distribution

In this instance, the manufacturers or producers rely on intermediary entities and businesses for logistical assistance. In other words, these organizations assist manufacturers in getting their products to end customers.

Direct Distribution

When manufacturers choose this technique, they sell and distribute their goods directly to consumers, with no involvement from a third party or intermediary. However, producers frequently require a warehouse to store their goods. Furthermore, they may necessitate a distribution mechanism in order to get the products to consumers.

These two types are divided into several subcategories. Let’s take a closer look at them.

#1. Intensive distribution

In this situation, the producer’s goal is to infiltrate the market and reach as many clients as possible by selling their products through various sales venues. Typically, producers utilize this method to offer low-cost goods such as household goods, beverages, and so on.

#2. Exclusive

In this technique, a producer chooses only a few sales locations to establish a specific level of exclusivity for a brand or item, such as luxury products or exotic vehicles.

#3. Selective

This strategy combines exclusive and intensive methods. This strategy allows manufacturers to offer their products in additional locations. They can choose which stores to sell in at the same time. A luxury clothes maker, for example, can choose a certain retail department store to boost customer reach.

#4. Reverse

In this technique, products are returned from consumers to the corporation. Businesses may also utilize this strategy to rehabilitate or recycle outdated products.   

#5. Dual

This method combines direct and selective strategies to preserve direct consumer sales while expanding market impact.  

Certain elements must be considered by businesses in order to determine which strategy is best for boosting consumer reach and optimizing profit through sales. These are some examples:

  • Specifications of the product
  • Characteristics of the company
  • Characteristics of competitors
  • Characteristics of the market

What Is a Distribution Channel?

A distribution channel is a network of enterprises or intermediaries through which a product or service travels before reaching the final buyer or end consumer. Wholesalers, merchants, distributors, and even the Internet are examples of distribution channels.

The downstream process includes distribution channels, which answer the issue “How do we get our product to the consumer?” In contrast, the downstream process, often known as the supply chain, addresses the question, “Who are our suppliers?”

Distribution Channel Components

  • Producer: A producer is someone who combines labor and capital to generate things and services for consumers.
  • Agent: Agents typically take payments and transfer title to goods and services as they move through distribution on behalf of the producer.
  • Wholesaler: A person or company who sells big quantities of items to retailers at affordable costs.
  • Retailer: A person or business that sells modest quantities of commodities to the general public for immediate use or consumption.
  • End User: A person who purchases a product or service.

Distribution Channel Types


A direct channel allows consumers to buy directly from the producer. Because consumers are purchasing directly from the manufacturer, this direct or short channel may result in lower costs.


A consumer can purchase items through an indirect channel from a wholesaler or retailer. For commodities sold in traditional brick-and-mortar establishments, indirect routes are prevalent.


Hybrid distribution channels make use of both direct and indirect routes. A product or service manufacturer may distribute a product or service through a retailer as well as directly to the consumer.

Levels of Distribution Channels

Level 0

This is a direct-to-consumer business in which the producer sells directly to the end user. Amazon, which sells Kindles through its platform, is an example of a direct model. This is the shortest possible distribution path, eliminating both the wholesaler and the retailer.

Level 1

A producer sells straight to a retailer, who then sells to the end user. There is only one intermediary at this level. HP and Dell are large enough to offer their computer products to respected shops like Best Buy directly.

Level 2

This level, which comprises two intermediaries, is one of the longest because it covers the producer, wholesaler, retailer, and customer. A winery cannot sell directly to a merchant in the wine and adult beverage market. It is a multi-tiered structure, which means that the winery must first sell to a wholesaler, who then sells to a retailer. The product is subsequently sold to the end user by the store.

Level 3

This level may include the jobber, who may assemble products from a range of producers, store them, sell them to retailers, and operate as a middleman between wholesalers and retailers.

A distribution route, also known as placement, can be included in a company’s marketing strategy, along with the product, promotion, and price.

Selecting the Best Distribution Channel

Because not all distribution channels are appropriate for all products, businesses must select the best one. The channel should be consistent with the company’s overarching mission and strategic vision, including sales targets.

The distribution technique should add value to the consumer. Do customers wish to speak with a salesperson? Will they want to touch and feel the product before making a purchase? Or do they want to buy it without any problems online? Answering these questions can help businesses decide which channel to use.

Second, the company should think about how soon it wants its product(s) to reach the buyer. Certain products, such as meat or fruit, benefit from a direct distribution channel, but others may benefit from an indirect one.

If a corporation decides to use various distribution channels, such as selling things online and through a retailer, the channels should not be in competition with one another. Companies should strategize so that one channel does not trump the other.

What Is Distribution Management?

The process of overseeing the transfer of goods from supplier to manufacturer to wholesaler or retailer and eventually to the end consumer is known as distribution management. There are numerous activities and procedures involved, such as raw material vendor management, packaging, warehousing, inventory, supply chain, logistics, and, in certain cases, blockchain.

Who Is a Distributor?

A distributor is a company that sells products to shops and other companies that sell directly to consumers. Consider a wholesale liquor distributor who sells alcohol to restaurants, grocery stores, and liquor stores.

A vegetable distributor who supplies lettuce, tomatoes, and other produce to restaurants is another example, as is a pharmaceutical distributor who supplies a variety of prescription-controlled medications to pharmacies.

Logistics vs. Distribution

Logistics is the comprehensive planning and processes that go into the efficient supply and transportation of products. Supply management, bulk and shipping packaging, temperature controls, security, fleet management, delivery routing, shipment tracking, and warehousing are all examples of logistics activities and processes. It’s probably easiest to conceive of logistics in terms of physical distribution.

Distribution is a logistics management system that focuses on order fulfillment across distribution networks. A distribution channel is the network of agents and entities via which a product or service travels from its point of origin to a consumer. E-commerce websites, wholesalers, retailers, and third-party or independent distributors are examples of distribution channels. Consumer or commercial packing, order fulfillment, and order delivery are all examples of distribution activities and procedures. In a nutshell, distribution can be classified as commercial or sales distribution.

What Is the Importance of Distribution Management?

Distribution management is first and foremost concerned with coordinating everything involved in getting goods to the buyer in a timely and waste-free manner. As a result, it has a direct effect on profitability.

What Exactly Is a Distribution Network, and What Are the Advantages?

A distribution network is a network of storage facilities and transportation systems that are linked together. It is built in line with a distribution plan that is intended to convey items from the manufacturer to wholesalers, retailers, or customers.

The Benefits of Distribution Management

Aside from increasing profitability, distribution management reduces waste in a variety of ways, from reduced spoilage to lower warehousing costs since items and supplies can be delivered when needed (“just in time”) rather than retained in larger quantities (“just in case” inventory).

Distribution management results in lower shipping costs and faster delivery to customers, as well as making things easier for purchasers by enabling “one stop shopping” and other conveniences and rewards, such as customer loyalty rewards programs.

Factors That Influence Distribution Management

Many factors can have an impact on distribution management. The five most common are as follows:

  • Unit perishability – If the object is perishable, time is of the essence to avoid loss.
  • Buyer purchase habits – peaks and troughs in purchasing habits might influence distribution patterns and hence predictably fluctuating distribution needs.
  • Changes in a retailer’s or manufacturer’s just-in-time inventory demands, for example, are examples of buyer requirements.
  • Forecasting product mix – optimum product mixes change with the seasons, weather, and other circumstances.
  • Truckload optimization entails using logistics and fleet management software to guarantee that each vehicle is fully loaded and routed along the most efficient path.

Distribution Management Strategies

There are three distribution management strategies at the strategic level:


The mass strategy seeks to distribute to a large number of people, such as those who sell to general customers wherever.


The selective method seeks to distribute to a specific group of vendors, such as pharmacies, hair salons, and high-end department stores.


The exclusive strategy seeks to distribute to a small number of people. For example, Ford vehicle makers only sell to approved Ford dealerships, and Gucci-brand goods producers only sell to a select group of luxury goods stores.

In Conclusion

A distribution channel is a network of enterprises or intermediaries through which a product or service travels before reaching the ultimate consumer. As products flow from manufacturer to consumer, distribution channels might include numerous tiers or middlemen, such as wholesalers or retailers. Because to the emergence of eCommerce platforms, producers may now sell directly to consumers.

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Originally posted 2023-10-25 10:16:09.